was an American poet and filmmaker. She was considered a key figure in the New York avant-garde film scene of the 1960s and was a founding member of the Filmmakers’ Cooperative which was founded in 1961 in New York City. Often overlooked by historians, in recent years she has been recognized as a pioneer of underground cinema. Much of de Hirsch’s work is abstract and uses a variety of experimental techniques, such as frame-by-frame etching on opaque black film stock and hand-painting on the film strip itself. Her films have screened at the Museum of Modern Art; the Whitney Museum of American Art; the Cannes Film Festival; and the Ann Arbor Film Festival; among others.